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An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Deals with someone’s inability or failure to perform to a satisfactory level, but without breaching the Standards of Professional Behaviour.
Focuses on putting an issue right and preventing it from happening again by encouraging those involved to reflect on their actions and learn. It is not a disciplinary process or a disciplinary outcome.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
Refers to lower-level misconduct or performance-related issues, which are dealt with in a proportionate and constructive manner.
This means doing what is appropriate in the circumstances, taking into account the facts and the context in which the complaint has been raised, within the framework of legislation and guidance.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IOPC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IOPC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IOPC.
The organisation that is responsible for assessing how to deal with a complaint. For example – whether it can be handled locally or reaches the criteria for referral to the IOPC. The appropriate authority may be the chief officer of the police force or the PCC for the force. If a complaint investigation finds that someone has a case to answer for misconduct, the appropriate authority is responsible for arranging any misconduct proceedings. If you make a complaint, the appropriate authority for your case will contact you.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.
Policing bodies include police and crime commissioners, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
IOPC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IOPC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
A person is adversely affected if he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
This is where a manager deals with the way someone has behaved. It can include: showing the police officer or member of staff how their behaviour fell short of expectations set out in the Standards of Professional Behaviour; identifying expectations for future conduct; or addressing any underlying causes of misconduct.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A breach of standards of professional behaviour by police officers or staff so serious it could justify their dismissal.
A matter where no complaint has been received, but where there is an indication that a person serving with the police may have committed a criminal offence or behaved in a manner that would justify disciplinary proceedings.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Quarter 1 covers 1 April - 30 June Quarter 2 covers 1 April - 30 September Quarter 3 covers 1 April - 31 December Quarter 4 covers the full financial year (1 April - 31 March).
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IOPC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into matters and produces a report that sets out and analyses the evidence. There are three types of investigations: local, directed and independent.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
List of officers and staff who have been dismissed from policing, or would have been if they had not retired or resigned.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
A breach of the Standards of Professional Behaviour that would justify at least a written warning.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
This is a format where information is written in plain English and short sentences.
The IOPC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.

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An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Deals with someone’s inability or failure to perform to a satisfactory level, but without breaching the Standards of Professional Behaviour.
Focuses on putting an issue right and preventing it from happening again by encouraging those involved to reflect on their actions and learn. It is not a disciplinary process or a disciplinary outcome.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
Refers to lower-level misconduct or performance-related issues, which are dealt with in a proportionate and constructive manner.
This means doing what is appropriate in the circumstances, taking into account the facts and the context in which the complaint has been raised, within the framework of legislation and guidance.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IOPC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IOPC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IOPC.
The organisation that is responsible for assessing how to deal with a complaint. For example – whether it can be handled locally or reaches the criteria for referral to the IOPC. The appropriate authority may be the chief officer of the police force or the PCC for the force. If a complaint investigation finds that someone has a case to answer for misconduct, the appropriate authority is responsible for arranging any misconduct proceedings. If you make a complaint, the appropriate authority for your case will contact you.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.
Policing bodies include police and crime commissioners, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
IOPC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IOPC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
A person is adversely affected if he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
This is where a manager deals with the way someone has behaved. It can include: showing the police officer or member of staff how their behaviour fell short of expectations set out in the Standards of Professional Behaviour; identifying expectations for future conduct; or addressing any underlying causes of misconduct.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A breach of standards of professional behaviour by police officers or staff so serious it could justify their dismissal.
A matter where no complaint has been received, but where there is an indication that a person serving with the police may have committed a criminal offence or behaved in a manner that would justify disciplinary proceedings.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Quarter 1 covers 1 April - 30 June Quarter 2 covers 1 April - 30 September Quarter 3 covers 1 April - 31 December Quarter 4 covers the full financial year (1 April - 31 March).
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IOPC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into matters and produces a report that sets out and analyses the evidence. There are three types of investigations: local, directed and independent.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
List of officers and staff who have been dismissed from policing, or would have been if they had not retired or resigned.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
A breach of the Standards of Professional Behaviour that would justify at least a written warning.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
This is a format where information is written in plain English and short sentences.
The IOPC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.

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Preface First

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Content

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Update on IOPC race discrimination work

Cymraeg isod

Background to our work on race discrimination

There is a long and well-documented history of tensions between the police and the Black community. While some progress has been made there is still much more to do to ensure that we have a police service where all communities are provided with an equitable service where they feel protected and respected by the police.

Public confidence is vital for a policing model that is based upon consent. Failure to acknowledge race discrimination and the experiences of Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities continues to undermine the legitimacy of policing, fueling distrust among members of those communities that the police will use their powers fairly and effectively and protect them from harm.

It must be named and addressed.

Community groups have raised concerns with us about the disproportionate policing of their communities compared with other racial groups and the impact of racial bias that influences the beliefs, actions and decisions of officers.

In September 2020, following increasing community concerns about policing and racism, we brought forward planned work on race discrimination as a thematic area of focus for the IOPC. Through this work we are seeking to expose and challenge race discrimination and racial disparities where they exist in policing in England and Wales and hold forces to account for changing policing practice.

This report provides a summary of our progress to date, including the types of cases and issues we are seeing and any emerging learning. A further report will be published next year providing more detail about the impact of this work.

While our work does not give us a fully representative picture of policing across England and Wales, the complaints and conduct matters we see are typically the most serious and sensitive cases and therefore important.

The allegations of discrimination we are seeing are very real and should be cause for concern by police forces across England and Wales.

Encouragingly, there are many signs of good practice and innovation emerging from police forces committed to tackling race discrimination and disproportionality, which we will continue to explore as possible catalysts for change. It is important to continue pushing and challenging both ourselves and the broader policing system to call out and address race discrimination.

Early insights from our work

Disproportionality in the use of stop and search

Many of our investigations and reviews with a potential element of race discrimination feature the use of stop and search. This supports what we are hearing from communities and other stakeholders who are telling us that that stop and search is a significant issue in Black communities in particular and has a corrosive impact on trust and confidence in the police.

Investigations we have carried out have resulted in:

  • A recommendation that an officer reflect on the stop of Black man in his car and the strength of the intelligence that justified the stop. We also recommended that the officer consider how his actions could disproportionately impact Black men, why the stop could be viewed as discriminatory, the impact the incident had on the man involved and the effect it could have on confidence in policing. The force agreed with this and a further recommendation which has led to the officer receiving additional training in equality, diversity and inclusion.
  • A finding at a misconduct hearing that an officer had breached the Standards of Professional Behaviour in respect of Equality and Diversity, Authority, Respect and Courtesy and Discreditable Conduct following the stop of Black woman in her car. The woman suggested that the stop stemmed from racial profiling and discrimination. It was also alleged that both officers made a comment that appeared to stereotype Black people. When she challenged this with the officers, she alleges that the officers’ behaviour was unprofessional, inappropriate and intimidating. The IOPC found that the officer had a case to answer for gross misconduct. The officer had resigned from the force prior to the misconduct hearing, but the Panel concluded that the breaches were proven and it would have considered imposing a sanction less than dismissal. Another officer was found to have a case to answer for misconduct. A misconduct meeting took place which determined the officer had breached the Standards of Professional Behaviour in respect of Authority, Respect and Courtesy and Discreditable Conduct. The sanction was in the form of management advice.

We are currently developing national learning recommendations based on evidence from our stop and search cases. These will be published in due course.

Disproportionality in the use of Taser

Concerns about race discrimination and disproportionality are among the issues most commonly raised by community groups and stakeholders in relation to Taser use. There is particular concern that the stereotyping of young Black men and boys is leading to them being disproportionately subjected to police use of force, including Taser.

In August 2021 we published a review of 101 independent investigations over a 5-year period (2015-2020) involving the use of Taser. This found that Black people were disproportionately involved in these investigations. 71% of the individuals were White, 22% were Black, less than 4% were Asian and less than 2% were of Mixed ethnicity. This is broadly in line with Home Office ethnicity data on Taser use.

Black people were, as a proportion, less likely to have been subjected to a Taser discharge than White people, however when they were subject to Taser discharges, they were more likely to be tasered for prolonged periods. 29% of White people involved in Taser discharges were subjected to continuous discharges of more than 5 seconds, whereas the figure was 60% for Black people.

In the majority of cases involving either allegations of discrimination or common stereotypes and assumptions, there was evidence that the individual concerned had mental health concerns or a learning disability. This supports findings by others that the intersectionality of race and mental health can increase the risk of higher levels of use of force.

We made 17 recommendations to address issues identified in our report. This included a recommendation to the College of Policing relating to training officers to provide an understanding of race disproportionality in Taser use, and the impact this has on public confidence and community relations with the police.

Cultural issues

We see evidence in certain cases where the behaviours and actions of some officers conflict with the values expected of them.

This has been apparent in a number of investigations we have carried out into police officers sharing offensive and inappropriate content on social media. It is encouraging that many of these instances have come to light because police officers have called out their colleagues and reported their concerns as they are duty bound to.

We carried out a series of linked investigations, known as Operation Hotton, involving officers formerly based at Charing Cross Police Station. Our investigations looked at allegations including bullying and harassment, drug use, destruction of evidence and the sending of misogynistic and discriminatory text messages. As a result of this investigation a disciplinary panel found that two former officers would have been dismissed from the force without notice had they still been serving. Both former officers have been placed on the Police Barred List preventing future employment with the police service.

Investigations relating to social media and race discrimination have included:

  • In December 2020, several Metropolitan Police Service officers received final written warnings for gross misconduct after sharing text messages which contained offensive references to people with disabilities and jokes about rape, paedophilia, racism and homophobia.
  • An investigation into the sharing of an image by a Devon and Cornwall Police officer on a WhatsApp group that included a number of other police officers and staff. The altered image inserted a naked adult film actor in the place of a police officer kneeling on the neck of George Floyd. We sent our investigation report to the Crown Prosecution Service which authorised a charge under S.127 of the Communications Act 2003. The officer was acquitted by a district judge of the criminal offence of sending a grossly offensive image. Our investigation report found that the officer had a disciplinary case to answer for gross misconduct and it will now be for the force to take forward disciplinary action.
  • In April 2021 two Metropolitan Police Service officers were charged with misconduct in public office in relation to allegedly taking photographs at a crime scene in Wembley the previous year and subsequently sharing them. This followed a referral from the Metropolitan Police Service after the deaths of Nicole Smallman and Bibaa Henry.

 

Failure to investigate

We know from speaking to our stakeholders that where a person from a Black, Asian and Minority background is a victim of crime, there are concerns that investigations are not conducted with the same rigour as they would be for a White victim of crime.

We have also had concerns raised with us, in the context of our thematic work, about the police response to people from Black, Asian and minority communities going missing. There are people who believe that racial discrimination may have impacted on the investigation into their missing family member, leading to gaps in the actions they would have expected from the police.

For example, we are currently investigating complaints by Richard Okorogheye’s mother about the way the Metropolitan Police Service handled reports that her son was missing. As part of our investigation into whether the police responded appropriately to the concerns raised that Richard was missing, we will consider whether his or his mother’s ethnicity played a part in the way the initial reports of his disappearance were handled.

We also investigated how the Metropolitan Police Service handled a number of calls from the family and friends of Nicole Smallman and Bibaa Henry who were concerned about their whereabouts. 

Summary of key activity

Work to tackle inappropriate use of social media

In April 2021 the IOPC Director General wrote to the National Police Chiefs Council asking them to remind forces and officers of their obligations under the police Code of Ethics and Standards of Professional Behaviour. Following this the National Police Chiefs’ Council has issued a reminder to forces of the expectations of officers when using social media and messaging apps. They have also set up a working group to address these issues. We are now working with the NPCC and other policing stakeholders as part of this working group to support their work to bring together tools and assistance at a national level to address this issue.

Reviewing police handling of discrimination complaints

Across most police forces, discrimination complaint allegations continue to be upheld at significantly lower rates than most other types of allegation.

Our 2019/20 Police complaints statistics show that 90% of investigations into discrimination complaint allegations were dealt with as non-special requirements investigations (where the threshold for an indication of misconduct was not found to be met).

Across these cases, only two per cent of discrimination complaint allegations were upheld. This compares with 11% upheld across all complaint allegations dealt with at the same level (investigated not subject to special requirements).

We are concerned there has been little change in complaint outcomes in this area. Overall, race discrimination allegations form a very small proportion of all allegations made against the police. Early indications point to ongoing questions around dismissal of perception-based complaints; lack of early engagement with the complainant; and underreported allegations.  

Without question, investigating allegations of discrimination is challenging. However, the police complaints system must be able to meet this challenge and provide effective complaint handling in relation to issues of discrimination. By doing so there is an opportunity to improve trust and confidence across all communities.

In May 2021, we wrote to Chief Constables and Policing and Crime Commissioners to ask for their assistance with this important area of focus.

Many police forces and local policing bodies, alongside the National Police Chiefs’ Council, are actively looking to see where they can make improvements to address longstanding issues around race discrimination, workforce diversity and low confidence in policing within particular ethnic communities.

In terms of local oversight, a wide range of initiatives have been put in place by individual forces and Local Policing Bodies (LPBs) to enhance the process for handling complaints from case reviews to increased engagement with hard-to-reach groups. The most common approach is thematic file reviews and, increasingly, there is a focus on examining possible disproportionality regarding race as a protected characteristic and the impact of this on the process for handling complaints

However, we believe there is more Chief Constables and PCCs can do to understand and address any particularly low levels of upheld rates in respect of discrimination complaints.

Our final report will look in more detail at local handling of race discrimination complaints where we see these cases on appeal and review and we will look for opportunities to share learning around handling discrimination allegations with forces. However, our initial examination of the data shows:

  • The vast majority of race discrimination allegations are treated as formal complaints by forces. Where there are exceptions, contributing factors include how complaints departments are structured and the impact of high-volume complaints arising from mass protests.   
  • Where complaints have been managed formally, they are most commonly addressed without an investigation. This allows police forces flexibility to take the action they think will be most appropriate to respond to the complainant’s concerns and could include actions such as gathering information to understand what happened, answering a complainant’s questions or identifying and acting on any learning. Part of our work will be to test whether use of this route is appropriate, and we will consider all relevant factors, such as, assessment of the seriousness of the complaint and use of reflective practice which allows officers to reflect, learn and, where necessary, put things right and prevent any issues from reoccurring. 

We are keen to explore these and any other emerging areas further and they will feed into our planned engagement with the forces and Local Policing Bodies and will include further information on this in the next report on this work.

Following up on our learning recommendations

In August 2020, the IOPC issued 11 recommendations to the Metropolitan Police Service to improve their practice in relation to their use of stop and search powers. All 11 of these recommendations were accepted. We shared information about the recommendations to the 32 volunteer Stop and Search Community Monitoring Groups (CMGs) in London. These groups monitor all local stop and search issues including the numbers of stops, arrest rates, disproportionality, complaints and body worn video.

In July 2021 we sent a survey to CMGs to find out what had happened since our recommendations. Responses were received from 20 CMGs representing 19 boroughs.

Many CMGs shared positive feedback and welcomed our stop and search recommendations. The survey results highlight that there is more work for the MPS to do in implementing our recommendations and demonstrating accountability to local communities. However, a small number of MPS Borough Command Units have established action plans which they have shared with and included CMGs on.

Changes reported by CMG members include:

  • Improved data sharing between the police and the CMG on handcuff use
  • Increased awareness and training that the smell of cannabis as the sole grounds to search is insufficient
  • Viewing body worn video footage along with 5090 stop slips and talking to the community about the impact of the powers
  • Focus on attitudes during searches, de-escalation and officer safety training reducing confrontation
  • More complete sets of grounds reported, and fewer single issue causes for stops
  • A commitment to improved supervision and development

 

Understanding stakeholder concerns

Between January and July 2021, we met with over 192 organisations such as youth commissions, stop and search monitoring groups, youth offending services, third sector services, community groups and local independent advisory groups. Discrimination was an issue with both policing and non-policing stakeholders in 63% of meetings. Stop and search was noted as a theme in half of those. 

Particular issues raised included: 

  • The disproportionate impact of stop and search practices on Black communities, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Black communities feeling subjected to overuse of handcuffing, stop and search and inappropriate and aggressive policing tactics by officers in the Territorial Support Group or Tactical Aid Units
  • Individuals who have received a negative or unsatisfactory response when reporting a Hate Crime feel less trusting towards the police, and are less likely to complain.
  • Poor police responses to missing people where the person is from a Black, Asian and minority community.
  • Mental health in Black and Asian communities and the way Black individuals with mental health conditions are dealt with by the police.

Many stakeholders also felt the IOPC should be bolder in speaking out more on race discrimination.

We have invited a number of stakeholders with an interest in this work to form part of an advisory group to advise us on our race discrimination work going forward.

We will continue to listen to and act upon stakeholder feedback in this area to ensure that our thematic work is focused on the issues of most concern to the public. 

Concerns about disproportionality or potential discrimination that do not tend to feature in the cases referred to us

There are other areas of policing where we know from our stakeholders, or from the media, that there are concerns about disproportionality or potential discrimination but do not tend to feature in the cases referred to us. These include:

  • Cases involving people from Gypsy, Romany and Traveller communities.
  • Cases involving people with insecure immigration status.
  • Complaints about the use of powers under Schedule 7 to the Terrorism Act 2000 which allows an examining officer to stop and question and, when necessary, detain and search, individuals travelling through ports, airports, international rail stations or the border area to determine whether the person appears to be (or have been) involved in the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism.
  • Complaints about the use of powers under Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 which allows a police officer to stop and search a person without suspicion where an authorisation has been granted for a specific area.

There may be a variety of reasons why we are not seeing these cases.

We are aware from our public perceptions tracker research that Black respondents are the least confident in both the police and IOPC of Black, Asian and minority respondents. In our most recent published research from 2018/19 we see that only 29 percent of Black respondents are confident in the police’s handling of complaints and 42 percent are confident in the IOPC’s impartiality. This compares with 43 percent of Asian respondents who are confident in the police’s handling of complaints and 61 percent who are confident in the IOPC’s impartiality.

Our stakeholder engagement has told us that extra work is required to build confidence among communities who have moved from countries with corrupt or untrustworthy police and justice systems. We have heard that this can result in a lack of confidence that impacts on people’s willingness to make a complaint. Stakeholders have also spoken to us about the impact of language barriers and cultural differences on people’s ability to engage with the complaints system.

Next steps

It is vital that we are able to respond to the evidence arising from our cases and concerns raised by communities to ensure that this work remains relevant.

In the months ahead, we will carry out further in-depth analysis of the evidence from our cases to identify themes and trends. This will focus on identifying opportunities for learning and areas where changes to policing policy or practice may be needed. This is likely to result in further organisational learning recommendations being developed and published. 

We will also work to understand the reasons behind us not seeing some of the issues we might have expected to and consider how we might address any barriers we identify. 

Our work on complaints, appeals and reviews will also continue to inform ongoing work with police forces and local policing bodies.

We will continue to identify any areas for improvement in our own operational practice and develop further internal guidance and training as required. We will also complete a review of our discrimination guidelines for police forces.

We are aware that we do not have all the levers to effect change in policing so we will continue to work with partners across the policing and criminal justice systems to maximise our impact across our thematic work. 

 

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Mae hyder y cyhoedd yn hanfodol ar gyfer model plismona sy’n seiliedig ar gydsyniad. Mae methu â chydnabod gwahaniaethu ar sail hil a phrofiadau cymunedau Du, Asiaidd a lleiafrifoedd ethnig yn parhau i danseilio cyfreithlondeb plismona, gan danio diffyg ymddiriedaeth ymhlith aelodau’r cymunedau hynny y bydd yr heddlu’n defnyddio eu pwerau’n deg ac yn effeithiol ac yn eu hamddiffyn rhag niwed.

Mae'n rhaid ei enwi a mynd i'r afael ag ef.

Mae grwpiau cymunedol wedi codi pryderon gyda ni am blismona anghymesur yn eu cymunedau o gymharu â grwpiau hiliol eraill ac effaith rhagfarn hiliol sy'n dylanwadu ar gredoau, gweithredoedd a phenderfyniadau swyddogion.

Ym mis Medi 2020, yn dilyn pryderon cynyddol cymunedol am blismona a hiliaeth, fe wnaethom ddwyn ymlaen waith wedi'i gynllunio ar wahaniaethu ar sail hil fel maes ffocws thematig ar gyfer yr IOPC. Drwy'r gwaith hwn rydym yn ceisio datgelu a herio gwahaniaethu hiliol lle maent yn bodoli mewn plismona yn Lloegr ac yng Nghymru a dwyn heddluoedd i gyfrif am newid arferion plismona.

Mae'r adroddiad hwn yn rhoi crynodeb o'n cynnydd hyd yma, gan gynnwys y mathau o achosion a materion yr ydym yn eu gweld ac unrhyw ddysgu sy'n dod i'r amlwg. Cyhoeddir adroddiad ychwanegol y flwyddyn nesaf yn rhoi rhagor o fanylion am effaith y gwaith hwn.

Er nad yw ein gwaith yn rhoi darlun cwbl gynrychioliadol i ni o blismona ledled Lloegr a Chymru, y cwynion a’r  materion  ymddygiad  a welwn fel arfer yw’r achosion mwyaf difrifol a sensitif ac felly’n bwysig.

Mae’r  honiadau  o wahaniaethu yr ydym yn eu gweld yn rhai real iawn a dylent fod yn destun pryder i heddluoedd ledled Lloegr a Chymru.

Yn galonogol, mae llawer o arwyddion o arfer da ac arloesedd yn dod i'r amlwg gan heddluoedd sy'n ymroddedig i fynd i'r afael â gwahaniaethu ar sail hil ac anghymesuredd, y byddwn yn parhau i'w harchwilio fel catalyddion posibl ar gyfer newid. Mae'n bwysig parhau i wthio a herio ein hunain a'r system blismona ehangach i alw allan a mynd i'r afael â gwahaniaethu ar sail hil.

Mewnwelediadau cynnar o'n gwaith

Anghyfartaledd yn y defnydd o stopio a chwilio

Mae llawer o'n hymchwiliadau ac adolygiadau ag elfen bosibl o wahaniaethu ar sail hil yn cynnwys defnyddio stopio a chwilio. Mae hyn yn cefnogi’r hyn rydym yn ei glywed gan gymunedau a rhanddeiliaid eraill sy’n dweud wrthym bod stopio a chwilio yn broblem sylweddol mewn cymunedau Du yn arbennig a’i fod yn cael effaith negyddol ar ymddiriedaeth a hyder yn yr heddlu.

Mae ymchwiliadau a gynhaliwyd gennym wedi arwain at:

  • Argymhelliad bod swyddog yn myfyrio ar stopio'r dyn Du yn ei gar a chryfder yr wybodaeth oedd yn cyfiawnhau'r stop. Fe wnaethom hefyd  argymell  bod y swyddog yn ystyried sut y gallai ei weithredoedd effeithio'n anghymesur ar ddynion Du, pam y gellid ystyried bod y stop yn wahaniaethol, yr effaith a gafodd y digwyddiad ar y dyn dan sylw a'r effaith y gallai ei gael ar hyder mewn plismona. Cytunodd yr heddlu â hyn ac argymhelliad ychwanegol sydd wedi arwain at y swyddog yn derbyn hyfforddiant ychwanegol mewn cydraddoldeb, amrywiaeth a chynhwysiant.
  • Canfyddiad mewn gwrandawiad  camymddwyn  bod swyddog wedi torri’r Safonau Ymddygiad Proffesiynol mewn perthynas â  Chydraddoldeb ac Amrywiaeth, Awdurdod, Parch a Chwrteisi ac Ymddygiad  Gwarthus  ar ôl i ddynes Ddu gael ei stopio yn ei char. Awgrymodd y fenyw fod y stopio yn deillio o broffilio hiliol a gwahaniaethu. Honnwyd hefyd bod y ddau swyddog wedi gwneud sylw a oedd i'w weld yn stereoteipio pobl Ddu. Pan heriodd hi hyn â’r swyddogion, mae’n honni bod ymddygiad y swyddogion yn amhroffesiynol, yn amhriodol ac yn fygythiol. Canfu’r IOPC fod gan y swyddog achos i’w ateb am gamymddwyn  difrifol . Roedd y swyddog wedi ymddiswyddo o'r heddlu cyn y gwrandawiad  camymddwyn , ond daeth y Panel i'r casgliad fod yr achosion o dorri amodau wedi cael eu profi ac y byddai wedi ystyried gosod sancsiwn llai na diswyddo. Cafwyd bod gan swyddog arall achos i'w ateb am  gamymddwyn. Cynhaliwyd cyfarfod  camymddwyn  a benderfynodd fod y swyddog wedi torri'r Safonau Ymddygiad Proffesiynol o ran Awdurdod, Parch a Chwrteisi ac Ymddygiad  Anghredadwy. Roedd y sancsiwn ar ffurf cyngor rheoli.

Ar hyn o bryd rydym yn datblygu argymhellion dysgu cenedlaethol yn seiliedig ar dystiolaeth o'n hachosion stopio a chwilio. Bydd y rhain yn cael eu cyhoeddi yn y man.

Anghymesuredd yn y defnydd o Taser

Mae pryderon ynghylch gwahaniaethu ar sail hil ac anghymesuredd ymhlith y materion a godwyd amlaf gan grwpiau cymunedol a rhanddeiliaid mewn perthynas â defnydd o Taser.  Mae pryder arbennig bod y stereoteipio o ddynion a bechgyn ifanc Du yn arwain at yr heddlu'n defnyddio grym anghymesur yn eu herbyn, gan gynnwys Taser.

Ym mis Awst 2021,  cyhoeddom  adolygiad  o 101 o ymchwiliadau annibynnol dros gyfnod o 5 mlynedd (2015-2020) yn ymwneud â defnydd o Taser. Canfu hwn fod pobl Ddu yn cymryd rhan anghymesur yn yr ymchwiliadau hyn. Roedd 71% o'r unigolion yn Wyn, 22% yn Ddu, llai na 4% yn Asiaidd a llai na 2% o ethnigrwydd Cymysg. Mae hyn yn cyd-fynd yn fras â data ethnigrwydd y Swyddfa Gartref ar ddefnydd o Taser.

Roedd pobl ddu, fel cyfran, yn llai tebygol o fod wedi cael  defnydd o Taser yn eu herbyn  na phobl Gwyn, fodd bynnag pan oeddent yn destun i ddefnydd o Taser, roeddent yn fwy tebygol o fod yn destun i'r Taser am gyfnodau hir. Roedd 29% o'r bobl Gwyn a oedd yn gysylltiedig â defnydd o Taser yn destun parhaus o fwy na 5 eiliad, tra'r oedd y ffigur yn 60% ar gyfer pobl Ddu.

Yn y mwyafrif o achosion yn ymwneud â naill ai  honiadau  o wahaniaethu neu stereoteipiau a thybiaethau cyffredin, roedd tystiolaeth fod gan yr unigolyn dan sylw bryderon iechyd meddwl neu anabledd dysgu. Mae hyn yn cefnogi canfyddiadau gan eraill y gall croestoriad hil ac iechyd meddwl gynyddu'r risg o lefelau uwch o ddefnydd o rym.

Gwnaethom 17 o argymhellion i fynd i'r afael â materion a nodwyd yn ein hadroddiad. Roedd hyn yn cynnwys argymhelliad i’r Coleg Plismona yn ymwneud â hyfforddi swyddogion i ddarparu dealltwriaeth o anghymesuredd hiliol o ran defnydd o Taser, a’r effaith y mae hyn yn cael ar hyder y cyhoedd a chysylltiadau cymunedol â’r heddlu.

Materion diwylliannol

Gwelwn dystiolaeth mewn rhai achosion lle mae ymddygiad a gweithredoedd rhai swyddogion yn gwrthdaro â'r gwerthoedd a ddisgwylir ganddynt.

Mae hyn wedi bod yn amlwg mewn nifer o ymchwiliadau rydym wedi'u cynnal i swyddogion heddlu sy'n rhannu cynnwys sarhaus ac amhriodol ar gyfryngau cymdeithasol. Mae'n galonogol bod llawer o'r achosion hyn wedi dod i'r amlwg oherwydd bod swyddogion heddlu wedi galw ar eu cydweithwyr ac wedi adrodd eu pryderon fel y mae dyletswydd arnynt i wneud.

Fe wnaethom gynnal cyfres o ymchwiliadau cysylltiedig, a elwir yn  Operation Hotton, yn cynnwys swyddogion oedd yn arfer gweithio yng Ngorsaf Heddlu Charing Cross. Edrychodd ein hymchwiliadau ar  honiadau  gan gynnwys bwlio ac aflonyddu, y defnydd o gyffuriau, dinistrio tystiolaeth ac anfon negeseuon testun gwreig-gasaol a gwahaniaethol. O ganlyniad i'r  ymchwiliad  hwn canfu panel disgyblu y byddai dau gyn-swyddog wedi cael eu diswyddo o'r heddlu heb rybudd pe baent yn dal i wasanaethu. Mae’r ddau gyn-swyddog wedi cael eu rhoi ar  Restr Gwahardd  yr Heddlu gan atal cyflogaeth â gwasanaeth yr heddlu yn y dyfodol.

Mae ymchwiliadau sy'n ymwneud â chyfryngau cymdeithasol a gwahaniaethu ar sail hil wedi cynnwys:

  • Ym mis Rhagfyr 2020, derbyniodd nifer o swyddogion Gwasanaeth Heddlu Llundain rybuddion ysgrifenedig terfynol am  gamymddwyn  difrifol  ar ôl  rhannu negeseuon testun  a oedd yn cynnwys cyfeiriadau sarhaus tuag at bobl ag anableddau a jôcs am dreisio, paedoffilia, hiliaeth a homoffobia.
  •  Ymchwiliad  i rannu delwedd gan swyddog o Heddlu Dyfnaint a Chernyw ar grŵp WhatsApp oedd yn cynnwys nifer o swyddogion heddlu a staff eraill. Gosododd y ddelwedd, a gafodd ei newid, o actor ffilm o oedolyn noeth yn lle heddwas yn penlinio ar wddf George Floyd. Anfonwyd adroddiad  ein  hymchwiliad i Wasanaeth Erlyn y Goron a awdurdododd gyhuddiad o dan A.127 o Ddeddf Cyfathrebiadau 2003. Cafwyd y swyddog yn ddieuog gan farnwr rhanbarth o’r drosedd o anfon delwedd hynod sarhaus. Canfu  adroddiad ein  hymchwiliad  fod gan y swyddog achos disgyblu i'w ateb am  gamymddwyn  difrifol  ac mai mater i'r heddlu nawr fydd bwrw ymlaen â chamau disgyblu.
  • Ym mis Ebrill 2021 cyhuddwyd dau o swyddogion Gwasanaeth Heddlu Llundain o  gamymddwyn   mewn swydd gyhoeddus mewn perthynas â honiad i dynnu lluniau mewn lleoliad trosedd yn Wembley y flwyddyn flaenorol ac yna eu rhannu. Roedd hyn yn dilyn  atgyfeiriad  gan Wasanaeth Heddlu Llundain ar ôl marwolaethau Nicole Smallman a Bibaa Henry.

 

Methiant i ymchwilio

Rydym yn gwybod o siarad â’n rhanddeiliaid, lle mae unigolyn o gefndir Du, Asiaidd a chefndir Lleiafrifol yn ddioddefwr trosedd, bod pryderon nad yw ymchwiliadau’n cael eu cynnal â’r un trylwyredd ag y byddent ar gyfer dioddefwr Gwyn o drosedd.

Rydym hefyd wedi cael pryderon a godwyd â ni, yng nghyd-destun ein gwaith thematig, am ymateb yr heddlu i bobl o gymunedau Du, Asiaidd a chefndir lleiafrifoedd ethnig yn mynd ar goll. Mae pobl sy'n credu y gallai gwahaniaethu ar sail hil fod wedi effeithio ar yr  ymchwiliad  i'w haelod o'r teulu coll, gan arwain at fylchau yn y gweithredoedd y byddent wedi eu disgwyl gan yr heddlu.

Er enghraifft, rydym ar hyn o bryd yn ymchwilio i gwynion gan fam Richard Okorogheye am y ffordd yr ymdriniodd Gwasanaeth Heddlu'r Metropolitan ag adroddiadau bod ei mab ar goll. Fel rhan o’n   hymchwiliad  i weld os ymatebodd yr heddlu’n briodol i’r pryderon a godwyd bod Richard ar goll, byddwn yn ystyried os chwaraeodd ei ethnigrwydd neu ethnigrwydd ei fam ran yn y ffordd yr ymdriniwyd â’r adroddiadau cychwynnol o’i ddiflaniad.

Fe wnaethom hefyd ymchwilio i  sut yr ymdriniodd Gwasanaeth Heddlu Llundain â nifer o alwadau gan deulu a ffrindiau Nicole Smallman a Bibaa Henry  a oedd yn pryderu am eu lleoliad. 

Crynodeb o weithgaredd allweddol

Gweithio i fynd i'r afael â defnydd amhriodol o gyfryngau cymdeithasol

Ym mis Ebrill 2021 ysgrifennodd  Cyfarwyddwr Cyffredinol yr IOPC at Gyngor Cenedlaethol Prif Swyddogion yr Heddlu  yn gofyn iddynt atgoffa heddluoedd a swyddogion o’u rhwymedigaethau o dan God Moeseg a Safonau Ymddygiad Proffesiynol yr heddlu. Yn dilyn hyn mae Cyngor Cenedlaethol Penaethiaid yr Heddlu wedi anfon nodyn atgoffa i heddluoedd o ddisgwyliadau swyddogion wrth ddefnyddio cyfryngau cymdeithasol ac apiau negeseuon. Maent hefyd wedi sefydlu gweithgor i fynd i'r afael â'r materion hyn. Rydym bellach yn gweithio âr NPCC a rhanddeiliaid plismona eraill fel rhan o’r gweithgor hwn i gefnogi eu gwaith i ddod ag offer a chymorth ynghyd ar lefel genedlaethol i fynd i’r afael â’r mater hwn.

Adolygu'r modd y mae'r heddlu'n delio â chwynion gwahaniaethu

Ar draws y rhan fwyaf o heddluoedd, mae  honiadau  o gwynion gwahaniaethu yn parhau i gael eu cadarnhau ar gyfraddau sylweddol is na'r rhan fwyaf o fathau eraill o  honiadau.

Mae ein  hystadegau cwynion yr Heddlu ar gyfer 2019/20  yn dangos yr ymdriniwyd â 90% o ymchwiliadau i  honiadau  o gŵynion gwahaniaethu fel ymchwiliadau heb fod yn ofynion arbennig (lle canfuwyd nad oedd y trothwy ar gyfer arwydd o  gamymddwyn  wedi cael ei fodloni).

Ar draws yr achosion hyn, dim ond dau y cant o  honiadau  o gwynion gwahaniaethu a gadarnhawyd. Mae hyn yn cymharu ag 11% a gadarnhawyd ar draws yr holl  honiadau  o gŵyn yr ymdriniwyd â nhw ar yr un lefel (yr ymchwiliad heb fod yn destun gofynion arbennig).

Rydym yn pryderu na fu llawer o newid mewn canlyniadau cwynion yn y maes hwn. Yn gyffredinol, mae  honiadau  o wahaniaethu ar sail hil yn gyfran fach iawn o'r holl  honiadau  a wneir yn erbyn yr heddlu. Mae arwyddion cynnar yn cyfeirio at gwestiynau parhaus ynghylch gwrthod cwynion ar sail canfyddiad; diffyg ymgysylltu cynnar â'r  achwynydd; a  honiadau nad ydynt yn cael eu hadrodd yn ddigonol.  

Heb amheuaeth, mae ymchwilio i  honiadau  o wahaniaethu yn heriol. Fodd bynnag, mae'n rhaid i system gwynion yr heddlu allu ymateb i'r her hon a darparu dull effeithiol o ymdrin â chwynion mewn perthynas â materion gwahaniaethu. Trwy wneud hynny mae cyfle i wella ymddiriedaeth a hyder ar draws pob cymuned.

Ym mis Mai 2021, fe wnaethom ysgrifennu at y Prif Gwnstabliaid a’r Comisiynwyr Plismona a Throseddu i ofyn am eu cymorth â’r maes ffocws pwysig hwn.

Mae llawer o heddluoedd a chyrff plismona lleol, ynghyd â Chyngor Cenedlaethol Penaethiaid yr Heddlu, wrthi’n edrych i weld ble gallant wneud gwelliannau i fynd i’r afael â materion hirsefydlog ynghylch gwahaniaethu ar sail hil, amrywiaeth y gweithlu a hyder isel mewn plismona o fewn cymunedau ethnig penodol.

O ran goruchwyliaeth leol, mae ystod eang o  fentrau wedi cael eu rhoi ar waith gan  heddluoedd  unigol a Chyrff Plismona Lleol (LPBs) i wella'r broses ar gyfer ymdrin â chwynion o adolygiadau achos i ymgysylltu cynyddol â grwpiau anodd eu cyrraedd. Y dull mwyaf cyffredin yw adolygu ffeiliau thematig ac, yn gynyddol, mae ffocws ar archwilio anghymesuredd posibl o ran hil fel nodwedd warchodedig ac effaith hyn ar y broses ar gyfer ymdrin â chwynion.

Fodd bynnag, credwn fod mwy y gall Prif Gwnstabliaid a Chomisiynwyr ei wneud i ddeall a mynd i'r afael ag unrhyw lefelau arbennig o isel o gyfraddau a gadarnhawyd mewn perthynas â chwynion gwahaniaethu.

Bydd ein hadroddiad terfynol yn edrych yn fanylach ar y modd yr ymdrinnir â chwynion gwahaniaethu hiliol yn lleol lle gwelwn yr achosion hyn ar apêl ac  adolygiad  a byddwn yn chwilio am gyfleoedd i rannu'r hyn a ddysgwyd ynghylch ymdrin â  honiadau  o wahaniaethu gyda heddluoedd. Fodd bynnag, mae ein harchwiliad cychwynnol o’r data yn dangos:

  • Mae mwyafrif helaeth yr honiadau  o  wahaniaethu ar sail hil  yn cael eu trin fel cwynion ffurfiol gan heddluoedd. Lle mae eithriadau, mae'r ffactorau sy'n cyfrannu'n cynnwys sut mae adrannau cwynion wedi cael eu strwythuro ac effaith cwynion niferus sy'n deillio o brotestiadau torfol.   
  • Lle mae cwynion wedi cael eu rheoli'n ffurfiol,  ymdrinnir â nhw amlaf  heb  ymchwiliad. Mae hyn yn caniatáu hyblygrwydd heddluoedd i gymryd y camau maent yn meddwl fydd fwyaf priodol i ymateb i bryderon yr  achwynydd a gallai  gynnwys camau gweithredu fel casglu gwybodaeth i ddeall beth ddigwyddodd,  ateb  cwestiynau'r achwynydd  neu  nodi a gweithredu ar unrhyw ddysgu. Rhan o’n gwaith fydd profi os yw’r defnydd hwn yn briodol, a byddwn yn ystyried yr holl ffactorau perthnasol, megis asesiad o ddifrifoldeb y gŵyn a’r defnydd o arfer myfyriol sy’n galluogi swyddogion i  fyfyrio, dysgu a, lle bo angen, cywiro pethau ac atal unrhyw faterion rhag ddigwydd eto. 

Rydym yn awyddus i archwilio'r rhain ac unrhyw feysydd eraill sy'n dod i'r amlwg ymhellach a byddant yn bwydo i mewn i'n hymgysylltiad arfaethedig â'r heddluoedd a Chyrff Plismona Lleol a byddant yn cynnwys rhagor o wybodaeth am hyn yn yr adroddiad nesaf ar y gwaith hwn.

Gweithio ymhellach ar ein hargymhellion dysgu

Ym mis Awst 2020, cyhoeddodd yr IOPC  11 o argymhellion  i’r Gwasanaeth Heddlu Metropolitan er mwyn gwella eu hymarfer mewn perthynas â’u defnydd o bwerau stopio a chwilio.  Derbyniwyd pob un o'r 11 argymhelliad hyn. Fe wnaethom rannu gwybodaeth am yr argymhellion i'r 32 o Grwpiau Monitro Cymunedol Stopio a Chwilio (CMG) gwirfoddol yn Llundain. Mae'r grwpiau hyn yn monitro'r holl faterion stopio a chwilio lleol gan gynnwys nifer yr stopiau, cyfraddau arestio, anghymesuredd, cwynion a fideo a wisgir ar y corff.

Ym mis Gorffennaf 2021 anfonwyd arolwg at y CMGs i ganfod beth oedd wedi digwydd ers ein hargymhellion. Derbyniwyd ymatebion gan 20 CMG yn cynrychioli 19 bwrdeistref.

Rhannodd llawer o'r CMGs adborth cadarnhaol a chroesawu ein hargymhellion stopio a chwilio. Mae canlyniadau’r arolwg yn amlygu bod rhaogor o waith i’r MPS ei wneud i weithredu ein hargymhellion a dangos atebolrwydd i gymunedau lleol. Fodd bynnag, mae nifer fach o Unedau Rheoli Bwrdeistref MPS wedi sefydlu cynlluniau gweithredu y maent wedi rhannu â'r CMGs ac wedi cynnwys CMGs arnynt.

Ymhlith y newidiadau a adroddwyd gan aelodau'r CMG mae:

  • Gwell rhannu data rhwng yr heddlu a'r CMG ar ddefnyddio gefynnau
  • Ymwybyddiaeth gynyddol a hyfforddiant bod arogl canabis fel yr unig reswm dros chwilio yn annigonol
  • Gweld lluniau fideo a wisgir ar y corff ynghyd â 5090 o slipiau stopio a siarad â'r gymuned am effaith y pwerau
  • Canolbwyntio ar agweddau yn ystod chwiliadau, dad-ddwysáu a hyfforddiant diogelwch swyddogion i leihau gwrthdaro
  • Adrodd am setiau mwy cyflawn o seiliau, a llai o achosion un mater dros y stiopio
  • Ymrwymiad i well goruchwyliaeth a datblygiad

 

Deall pryderon rhanddeiliaid

Rhwng Ionawr a Gorffennaf 2021, cyfarfuom â dros 192 o sefydliadau megis comisiynau ieuenctid, grwpiau monitro stopio a chwilio, gwasanaethau troseddau ieuenctid, gwasanaethau trydydd sector, grwpiau cymunedol a grwpiau cynghori annibynnol lleol. Roedd gwahaniaethu yn broblem â rhanddeiliaid plismona a heb fod ynghylch plismona yn 63% o gyfarfodydd. Nodwyd stopio a chwilio fel thema yn hanner o rheini. 

Roedd y materion penodol a godwyd yn cynnwys: 

  • Effaith anghymesur arferion stopio a chwilio ar gymunedau Du, yn enwedig yn ystod y pandemig COVID-19.
  • Cymunedau du yn teimlo eu bod yn destun gorddefnydd o gefynnau, stopio a chwilio a thactegau plismona amhriodol ac ymosodol gan  swyddogion yn y Grŵp Cymorth Tiriogaethol neu’r Unedau Cymorth Tactegol
  • Mae unigolion sydd wedi derbyn ymateb negyddol neu anfoddhaol wrth adrodd am Drosedd Casineb yn teimlo’n llai ymddiriedol tuag at yr heddlu, ac yn llai tebygol o gwyno.
  • Ymatebion gwael yr heddlu i bobl sydd ar goll a ble mae'r unigolyn yn dod o gymuned  Ddu, Asiaidd a chefndir lleiafrifol .
  • Iechyd meddwl mewn cymunedau Du ac  Asiaidd  a'r ffordd  mae'r heddlu'n delio ag unigolion du sydd â chyflyrau iechyd meddwl.

Teimlai llawer o randdeiliaid hefyd y dylai'r IOPC fod yn fwy hyderus wrth siarad allan mwy am wahaniaethu ar sail hil.

Rydym wedi gwahodd nifer o randdeiliaid sydd â diddordeb yn y gwaith hwn i ffurfio rhan o grŵp cynghori i'n cynghori ar ein gwaith gwahaniaethu ar sail hil yn y dyfodol.

Byddwn yn parhau  i wrando ar adborth rhanddeiliaid yn y maes hwn a gweithredu arno er mwyn sicrhau bod ein gwaith thematig yn canolbwyntio ar y materion sy’n peri’r pryder mwyaf i’r cyhoedd. 

Pryderon am anghymesuredd neu wahaniaethu posibl nad ydynt yn tueddu i fod yn rhan o'r achosion sy'n cael eu hatgyfeirio atom

Mae meysydd eraill o blismona lle rydym yn gwybod gan ein rhanddeiliaid, neu gan y cyfryngau, bod pryderon ynghylch anghymesuredd neu wahaniaethu posibl ond nad ydynt yn tueddu i fod yn rhan o’r achosion sy'n cael eu hatgyfeirio atom. Mae’r rhain yn cynnwys:

  • Achosion yn ymwneud â phobl o gymunedau Sipsiwn, Romani a Theithwyr.
  • Achosion yn ymwneud â phobl â statws mewnfudo ansefydlog.
  • Cwynion am y defnydd o bwerau o dan Atodlen 7 i Ddeddf Terfysgaeth 2000 sy’n caniatáu i swyddog archwilio stopio a chwestiynu a, phan fo angen, cadw a chwilio, unigolion sy’n teithio drwy borthladdoedd, meysydd awyr, gorsafoedd rheilffordd rhyngwladol neu ardal y ffin i benderfynu os yw’r unigolyn yn ymddangos i fod (neu wedi bod) yn ymwneud â chomisiynu, paratoi neu ysgogi gweithredoedd terfysgol.
  • Cwynion am y defnydd o bwerau o dan Adran 60 o Ddeddf Cyfiawnder Troseddol a Threfn Gyhoeddus 1994 sy’n caniatáu i swyddog heddlu stopio a chwilio unigolyn heb amheuaeth lle mae awdurdodiad wedi cael ei roi ar gyfer ardal benodol.

Gall fod amrywiaeth o resymau pam nad ydym yn gweld yr achosion hyn.

Rydym yn ymwybodol o’n hymchwil tracio canfyddiadau’r cyhoedd mai ymatebwyr Du yw’r lleiaf hyderus yn yr heddlu a’r IOPC allan o ymatebwyr Du, Asiaidd a chefndir lleiafrifol. Yn ein  hymchwil gyhoeddedig  ddiweddaraf o 2018/19 gwelwn mai dim ond 29 y cant o ymatebwyr Du sy’n hyderus yn y modd mae’r heddlu’n ymdrin â chwynion a 42 y cant yn hyderus bod yr IOPC yn ddiduedd. Mae hyn yn cymharu â 43 y cant o ymatebwyr Asiaidd sy’n hyderus yn y modd mae'r heddlu'n ymdrin â chwynion a 61 y cant sy’n hyderus yn amhleidioldeb yr IOPC.

Mae ein hymgysylltiad â rhanddeiliaid wedi dweud wrthym fod angen gwaith ychwanegol i feithrin hyder ymhlith cymunedau sydd wedi symud o wledydd sydd â systemau heddlu a chyfiawnder llwgr neu annibynadwy. Rydym wedi clywed y gall hyn arwain at ddiffyg hyder sy’n effeithio ar barodrwydd pobl i wneud cwyn. Mae rhanddeiliaid hefyd wedi siarad â ni am effaith rhwystrau iaith a gwahaniaethau diwylliannol ar allu pobl i ymgysylltu â’r system gwynion.

Camau nesaf

Mae’n hanfodol ein  bod yn gallu  ymateb i’r dystiolaeth sy’n deillio o’n hachosion a’n pryderon a godwyd gan gymunedau  er mwyn sicrhau bod y gwaith hwn yn parhau i fod yn  berthnasol.

Yn y misoedd i ddod, byddwn yn cynnal dadansoddiad manwl ychwanegol o'r dystiolaeth o'n hachosion i nodi themâu a thueddiadau. Bydd hyn yn canolbwyntio ar nodi cyfleoedd ar gyfer dysgu a meysydd lle gallai fod angen newidiadau i bolisi neu arfer plismona. Mae hyn yn debygol o arwain at ddatblygu a chyhoeddi rhagor o argymhellion dysgu sefydliadol. 

Byddwn hefyd yn gweithio i ddeall y rhesymau y tu ôl i ni beidio â gweld rhai o'r materion y gallem fod wedi disgwyl eu gwneud, ac yn ystyried sut y gallem fynd i'r afael ag unrhyw rwystrau rydym yn eu nodi. 

Bydd ein gwaith ar gwynion,  apeliadau  ac adolygiadau hefyd yn parhau i lywio gwaith parhaus â heddluoedd a chyrff plismona lleol.

Byddwn yn parhau i nodi unrhyw feysydd i'w gwella yn ein harferion gweithredol a datblygu arweiniad a hyfforddiant mewnol ychwanegol yn ôl y gofyn. Byddwn hefyd yn cwblhau  adolygiad  o'n canllawiau gwahaniaethu ar gyfer heddluoedd.

Rydym yn ymwybodol nad oes gennym yr holl ysgogiadau er mwyn sicrhau newid mewn plismona, felly byddwn yn parhau i weithio â phartneriaid ar draws y systemau plismona a chyfiawnder troseddol i gynyddu ein heffaith ar draws ein gwaith thematig. 

An act of parliament that provides the core framework of police powers to combat crime and provide codes of practice for the exercise of these powers.
Leads and manages the development of the police service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The body that represents the interests of all police constables, sergeants, and inspectors.
Deals with someone’s inability or failure to perform to a satisfactory level, but without breaching the Standards of Professional Behaviour.
Focuses on putting an issue right and preventing it from happening again by encouraging those involved to reflect on their actions and learn. It is not a disciplinary process or a disciplinary outcome.
Department within a police force that deals with complaints and conduct matters.
Refers to lower-level misconduct or performance-related issues, which are dealt with in a proportionate and constructive manner.
This means doing what is appropriate in the circumstances, taking into account the facts and the context in which the complaint has been raised, within the framework of legislation and guidance.
The average is calculated using the individual results of the forces in that most similar force group.
An investigation carried out by IOPC staff.
Carried out by the police under their own direction and control. The IOPC sets the terms of reference and receives the investigation report when it is complete. Complainants have a right of appeal following a supervised investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
This act sets out how the police complaints system operates.
How a police force is run, for example policing standards or policing policy.
An investigation carried out by the police under the direction and control of the IOPC.
The organisation that is responsible for assessing how to deal with a complaint. For example – whether it can be handled locally or reaches the criteria for referral to the IOPC. The appropriate authority may be the chief officer of the police force or the PCC for the force. If a complaint investigation finds that someone has a case to answer for misconduct, the appropriate authority is responsible for arranging any misconduct proceedings. If you make a complaint, the appropriate authority for your case will contact you.
An intelligence-led agency with law enforcement powers, it is also responsible for reducing the harm that is caused to people and communities by serious organised crime.
Policing bodies include police and crime commissioners, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
Investigations carried out entirely by the police. Complainants have a right of appeal following a local investigation (unless it is an investigation into a direction and control matter).
IOPC guidance to the police service and police authorities on the handling of complaints.
A complaint or recordable conduct matter that doesn’t need to be referred to the IOPC, but where the seriousness or circumstances justifies referral.
Parameters within which an investigation is conducted.
A person is adversely affected if he or she suffers any form of loss or damage, distress or inconvenience, if he or she is put in danger or is otherwise unduly put at risk of being adversely affected.
This is where a manager deals with the way someone has behaved. It can include: showing the police officer or member of staff how their behaviour fell short of expectations set out in the Standards of Professional Behaviour; identifying expectations for future conduct; or addressing any underlying causes of misconduct.
This could be the Police and Crime Commissioner, the Common Council for the City of London, or the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A flexible process for dealing with complaints that can be adapted to the needs of the complainant. It may involve, for example, providing information and an explanation, an apology, or a meeting between the complainant and the officer involved.
A breach of standards of professional behaviour by police officers or staff so serious it could justify their dismissal.
A matter where no complaint has been received, but where there is an indication that a person serving with the police may have committed a criminal offence or behaved in a manner that would justify disciplinary proceedings.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
Quarter 1 covers 1 April - 30 June Quarter 2 covers 1 April - 30 September Quarter 3 covers 1 April - 31 December Quarter 4 covers the full financial year (1 April - 31 March).
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.
Used to house anyone who has been detained.
Complainants have the right to appeal to the IOPC if a police force did not record their complaint or notify the correct police force if it was made originally to the wrong force.
The purpose of an investigation is to establish the facts behind a complaint, conduct matter, or DSI matter and reach conclusions. An investigator looks into matters and produces a report that sets out and analyses the evidence. There are three types of investigations: local, directed and independent.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
A person who makes a complaint about the conduct of someone serving with the police.
The ending of an ongoing investigation into a complaint, conduct matter or DSI matter. An investigation may only be discontinued if it meets one or more of the grounds for discontinuance set out in law.
List of officers and staff who have been dismissed from policing, or would have been if they had not retired or resigned.
The type of behaviour being complained about. A single complaint case can have one or many allegations attached.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
An independent judicial officer, the coroner enquires into deaths reported to him/her.
A breach of the Standards of Professional Behaviour that would justify at least a written warning.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
A record is made of a complaint, giving it formal status as a complaint under the Police Reform Act 2002.
This is a format where information is written in plain English and short sentences.
The IOPC must be notified about specific types of complaint or incidents to be able to decide how they should be dealt with.
No further action may be taken with regard to a complaint if the complainant decides to retract their allegation(s).
Casework involves assessing appeals. Casework staff also have a role in overseeing the police complaints system to help ensure police forces handle complaints in the best possible way.
Disapplication means that a police force may handle a complaint in whatever way it thinks fit, including not dealing with it under complaints legislation. This may only happen in certain circumstances where the complaint fits one or more of the grounds for disapplication set out in law.
Conduct includes acts, omissions, statements and decisions (whether actual, alleged or inferred). For example: language used and the manner or tone of communications.
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.
You can request a review/appeal if you’re not satisfied with how your complaint has been handled.

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